Research Methods II . Quiz I Result

Research Methods II

Quiz 1 Result

*Note: one mark will be added in the total marks of every individual e.g. 11-3=8+1=09. And if 3-4=-1+1=1

Serial # Roll # Marks
  1. 11-03
  2. 08-06
  4. 07-07
  5. 11-03
  8. 10-02
  9. 08-06
  10. 09-04
  13. 08-02
  14. 09-05
  15. 06-07
  17. 07-07
  18. 07-07
  19. 09-05
  20. 07-05
  21. 06-08
  22. 10-04
  23. 10-04
  24. 06-07
  25. 05-03
  26. 07-05
  27. 12-02
  28. 08-06
  30. 07-07
  31. 04-06
  33. 07-04
  34. 10-04
  36. 13-1
  38. 07-07
  39. 02-07
  40. 08-06
  42. 06-08
  43. 04-07
  44. 07-03
  45. 11-03
  47. 06-07
  50. 08-05
  51. 10-04
  52. 06-08
  53. 06-08
  54. 07-06
  55. 06-06
  56. 07-06
  57. 06-05
  58. 08-06
  62. 04-10
  65. 11-02
  66. 11-03
  68. 03-07
  70. 03-06
  73. 04-10
  74. 09-05

America , China, Russia and War

Laughing on the Way to Armageddon — Paul Craig Roberts

The United States shows the world such a ridiculous face that the world laughs at us.

The latest spin on “Russia stole the election” is that Russia used Facebook to influence the election. The NPR women yesterday were breathless about it.

We have been subjected to ten months of propaganda about Trump/Putin election interference and still not a scrap of evidence. It is past time to ask an unasked question: If there were evidence, what is the big deal? All sorts of interest groups try to influence election outcomes including foreign governments. Why is it OK for Israel to influence US elections but not for Russia to do so? Why do you think the armament industry, the energy industry, agribusiness, Wall Street and the banks, pharmaceutical companies, etc., etc., supply the huge sum of money to finance election campaigns if their intent is not to influence the election? Why do editorial boards write editorials endorsing one candidate and damning another if they are not influencing the election?

What is the difference between influencing the election and influencing the government? Washington is full of lobbyists of all descriptions, including lobbyists for foreign governments, working round the clock to influence the US government. It is safe to say that the least represented in the government are the citizens themselves who don’t have any lobbyists working for them.

The orchestrated hysteria over “Russian influence” is even more absurd considering the reason Russia allegedly interfered in the election. Russia favored Trump because he was the peace candidate who promised to reduce the high tensions with Russia created by the Obama regime and its neocon nazis—Hillary Clinton, Victoria Nuland, Susan Rice, and Samantha Power. What’s wrong with Russia preferring a peace candidate over a war candidate? The American people themselves preferred the peace candidate. So Russia agreed with the electorate.

Those who don’t agree with the electorate are the warmongers—the military/security complex and the neocon nazis. These are democracy’s enemies who are trying to overturn the choice of the American people. It is not Russia that disrespects the choice of the American people; it is the utterly corrupt Democratic National Committee and its divisive Identity Politics, the military/security complex, and the presstitute media who are undermining democracy.

I believe it is time to change the subject. The important question is who is it that is trying so hard to convince Americans that Russian influence prevails over us?

Do the idiots pushing this line realize how impotent this makes an alleged “superpower” look. How can we be the hegemonic power that the Zionist neocons say we are when Russia can decide who is the president of the United States?

The US has a massive spy state that even intercepts the private cell phone conversations of the Chancellor of Germany, but his massive spy organization is unable to produce one scrap of evidence that the Russians conspired with Trump to steal the presidential election from Hillary. When will the imbeciles realize that when they make charges for which no evidence can be produced they make the United States look silly, foolish, incompetent, stupid beyond all belief?

Countries are supposed to be scared of America’s threat that “we will bomb you into the stone age,” but the President of Russia laughs at us. Putin recently described the complete absence of any competence in Washington:

It is difficult to talk to people who confuse Austria and Australia. But there is nothing we can do about this; this is the level of political culture among the American establishment. As for the American people, America is truly a great nation if the Americans can put up with so many politically uncivilized people in their government.”

These words from Putin were devastating, because the world understands that they are accurate.


Consider the idiot Nikki Haley, appointed by Trump in a fit of mindlessness as US Ambassador to the United Nations. This stupid person is forever shaking her fist at the Russians while mouthing yet another improbable accusation. She might want to read Mario Puzo’s book, The Godfather. Everyone knows the movie, but if memory serves somewhere in the book Puzo reflects on the practice of the irate American motorist who shakes a fist and gives the bird to other drivers. What if the driver receiving the insult is a Mafia capo? Does the idiot shaking his fist know who he is accosting? No. Does the moron know that the result might be a brutal beating or death? No.


Does the imbecile Nikki Haley understand what can be the result of her inability to control herself? No. Every knowledgeable person I know wonders if Trump appointed the imbecile Nikki Haley US ambassador to the world for the purpose of infuriating the Russians.

Ask Napoleon and the German Wehrmacht the consequence of infuriating the Russians.

After 16 years the US “superpower” has been unable to defeat a few thousand lightly armed Taliban, who have no air force, no Panzer divisions, no worldwide intelligence service, and the crazed US government in Washington is courting war with Russia and China and North Korea and Iran.

The American people are clearly out to lunch in their insouciance. Americans are fighting among themselves over “civil war” statues, while “their’ government invites nuclear armageddon.

The United States has an ambassador to the world who shows no signs of intelligence, who behaves as if she is Mike Tyson or Bruce Lee to the 5th power, and who is the total antithesis of a diplomat. What does this tell about the United States?

It reveals that the US is in the Roman collapse stage when the emperor appoints horses to the Senate.

The United States has a horse, an uncivilized horse, as its diplomat to the world. The Congress and executive branch are also full of horses and horse excrement. The US government is completely devoid of intelligence. There is no sign of intelligence anywhere in the U.S. government. Of or morality. As Hugo Chavez said: Satan is there; you can smell the sulphur.

America is a joke with nuclear weapons, the prime danger to life on earth.

How can this danger be corralled?

The American people would have to realize that they are being led to their deaths by the Zionist neocon nazis who, together with the military/security complex and Wall Street, control US foreign policy, by the complicity of Europe and Great Britain desperate to retain their CIA subsidies, and by the harlots that comprise the Western media.

Are Americans capable of comprehending this? Only a few have escaped The Matrix.

The consequence is that America is being locked into conflict with Russia and China. There is no possibility whatsoever of Washington invading either country, much less both, so war would be nuclear.

Do the American people want Washington to bring us this result? If not, why are the American people sitting there sucking their thumbs, doing nothing? Why are Europe and Great Britain sitting there permitting the unfolding of nuclear armageddon? Who murdered the peace movement?

The World and the American people need desperately to rein in the warmonger United States, or the world will cease to exist.

An International Court To Preserve Life On Earth needs to be assembled. The US government and the war interests it serves need to be indicted and prosecuted and disarmed before their evil destroys life on earth.

September 8, 2017

Press and social media freedom

جرمنی میں بائیں بازو کی ویب سائٹ بند

جرمنی میں اِنڈی میڈیا نامی اخبار کی ویب سائٹ کو ملکی قوانین سے متصادم ہونے کے الزام پر بند کر ديا گیا ہے۔ بائیں بازو کے افراد میں یہ اخبار خاصا مقبول تھا۔

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اس سائٹ کا اسکرین شاٹ جمعے کی صبح دکھایا گیا، تاہم وزیر داخلہ کی پریس کانفرنس کے بعد یہ ویب سائٹ آف لائن ہو گئی۔ لِنک زونٹین اِنڈی میڈیا ڈاٹ او آر جی نامی اس ویب سائٹ کی بندش سے قبل انتہائی دائیں بازو کے نیو نازیوں کی جانب سے امریکا میں غیر ملکیوں پر حملوں کے حوالے سے اس پر سن 1992 میں سوگواری پوسٹ شائع کی گئی تھی۔

وزیرداخلہ تھوماس ڈے میزیئر کے مطابق اس سائٹ کی بندش کی وجہ ملک میں پائے جانے والے مختلف نکتہ ہائے نظر اور آراء کے خلاف نفرت کا اظہار بنی۔

انہوں نے کہا کہ لنک زُنٹین ڈاٹ اِنڈی میڈیا ڈاٹ او آر جی کو حکام ایک اخباری ادارے کی بجائے ایک تنظیم کی طرح برت رہے ہیں، اس طرح جرمنی کے دستور میں آزادی اظہار رائے کی ضمانت پر حرف آئے بغیر اس تنظیم سے نمٹا جا سکے گا۔ ڈے میزیئر نے بتایا کہ کم از کم دو افراد نے اس ’تنظیم‘ کی بنیاد رکھی، جب کہ اس سائٹ کے قریب سات ایڈمنسٹریٹرز ہو سکتے ہیں۔ انہوں نے تاہم یہ بھی کہا کہ اس پابندی سے بین الاقوامی شہرت یافتہ اور انعام یافتہ انڈی میڈیا نیٹ ورک متاثر نہیں ہو گا۔

 جرمن صوبے باڈن وُوٹنگ برگ کے وزیرداخلہ، چانسلر انگیلا میرکل کی جماعت کرسچیئن ڈیموکریٹ یونین سے تعلق رکھنے والے رہنما تھامس شٹروبل نے بھی اس بابت کہا، ’’ ہم فی الحال ان متعدد جگہوں کی تلاش میں ہیں، جہاں سے یہ سائٹ چلائی جاتی رہی ہے۔‘‘

Deutschland GETEX Übung Gemeinsame Terrorabwehr von Polizei und Bundeswehr | Innenminister de Maizière (Reuters/M. Schreiber)جرمن وزیرداخلہ نے اس ویب سائٹ کی بندش کا اعلان کیا

انہوں نے تاہم بتایا کہ حکام اس سائٹ سے متعلقہ کمپیوٹرز اور دیگر مواد تو قبضے میں لے رہے ہیں، تاہم فی الحال کسی کو گرفتار کرنے کا کوئی منصوبہ نہیں ہے۔ انہوں نے یہ بھی بتایا کہ اس سائٹ سے متعلق مقامات میں سے بعض میں چاقو اور کلبز تک بھی ملے ہیں۔

یہ بات اہم ہے کہ سات ہفتے قبل شمالی جرمن شہر ہیمبرگ میں جی ٹوئٹنی اجلاس کے موقع پر ٹی وی چینلز پر پولیس اور مظاہرین کے درمیان شدید جھڑپوں کی تصاویر اور فوٹیج دکھائی جاتی رہیں، تاہم یہ کووریج حقائق سے کہیں زیادہ بڑھا چڑھا کر پیش کی گئی اور اب تک اس حوالے سے صرف ایک شخص پر ہی پولیس پر حملے کی فرد جرم عائد کی گئی ہے۔ جرمن سیاسی جماعتوں نے جی ٹوئنٹی اجلاس کے بعد اس عزم کا اظہار کیا تھا کہ وہ اس ’خوف ناک صورت حال‘ سے ضرور نمٹیں گی۔

لنک زُونٹین اِنڈی میڈیا ڈاٹ او آر جی ایک آزاد فورم کی طرح سے چلائی جانے والی ویب سائٹ تھی، جس پر سرمایہ داری نظام، سرحدی بندشوں اور دائیں بازو کے افراد کے خلاف بہت سا مواد جاری کیا جاتا رہا ہے۔ اس ویب سائٹ پر ایڈمنسٹریٹر کی جانب سے تعارفی پیغام میں لکھا تھا، ’’ہر روز بائیں بازو کے ہزارو افراد اس ویب سائٹ پر آتے ہیں اور مختلف جہتوں سے متعلق معلومات حاصل کرتے ہیں۔‘‘

اس ویب سائٹ کو انتہائی دائیں بازو کی تنظیموں اور جماعتوں کے مخالفین اور سرمایہ داری نظام کے خلاف احتجاج کرنے والے استعمال کرتے رہے اور بعض صورتوں میں اس پر ایسا مواد بھی موجود رہا ہے، جو ان افراد کو مخالفین کے خلاف تشدد کی حد  تک کارروائیوں پر اکساتا رہا ہے۔

(بشکریہ ( ڈی ڈبلیو جرمنی

BBC Short History

This is a brief history of the BBC which, when it was first created, was known as the British Broadcasting Company. It was towards the end of the 1920s, after receiving the Royal Charter, that it became the British Broadcasting Corporation.

A broadcast licence was introduced to help the funding of the BBC in the early 1920s as the BBC was classed as a public broadcasting organisation. The licence was originally known as a ‘broadcast receiving licence’, becoming the radio licence in 1922. It was on 1 June, 1946 that the TV licence was introduced and in January 1968, as colour television started, the licence was amended to cover both black and white and colour television. The original radio licence was abolished in 1971.

How the BBC Started

It was back in 1922 when the Post Office, at the Government’s behest, first agreed to trial two experimental radio stations. The stations were simply known as 2MT, based in Writtle, Chelmsford, and 2LO based in London. The radio stations were set up as the basis for forming the British Broadcasting Company.

The Company was actually created in October, 1922 and was initially owned and run by the then leading wireless manufacturers, including Marconi. The first daily broadcasts by the BBC started on 14 November and took place from Marconi’s studio in London. This was then followed by broadcasts from Birmingham and Manchester.

In just a few months the transmitter network spread out all over the UK as the wireless caught on as a means of mass communication. By the end of 1925 the BBC could be listened to throughout the UK.

The BBC had been created initially with nothing more in mind than to be a commercial interest; being owned by the major wireless makers, it was set up to sell radios. The general manager at the time, a Scotsman called John Reith, decided he wanted something that was different – to be able to educate, inform and entertain without Government interference or commercial pressures influencing what was broadcast.

It was the General Strike in 1926 that first brought the BBC into direct confrontation with the government. The strike meant there were no national newspapers, so people listened to the BBC for news and information. Winston Churchill, who was then the Chancellor of the Exchequer, tried to get the Government to take over the BBC in order to control its output, but John Reith persuaded the then Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, that such a takeover would not be in the country’s best interest. The BBC was left to carry on in its own way; as a result, it started to gain a reputation for impartial and independent reporting. In 1927 the BBC got its first Royal Charter and it then changed from being called the British Broadcasting Company to the British Broadcasting Corporation.

1930 – 1939

In 1932 the BBC moved into a new purpose-built building, Broadcasting House, in Portland Place, London. It was the world’s first radio production centre and the building became a city landmark, often described as the New Tower of London.

During the 1930s all manner of eminent figures, from writers, performers, artists and actors were heard in plays, sport and talk shows. The BBC Symphony Orchestra was created and the first BBC commission was awarded to Gustav Holst. Most popular were the variety shows which had millions of listeners. Also in 1932, the BBC launched what was then called the Empire Service which was later to become the World Service.

On 2 November, 1936, the BBC started the world’s first television service based in Alexandra Palace, London. They were to test two television systems, one by John Logie Baird and one by the US backed EMI-Marconi. After two months the EMI-Marconi system was chosen as it was an electronic system compared to Logie Baird’s mechanical one.

As with radio, television developed rapidly when it first started, from 1936 – 1939, and highlights included outside broadcasting such as King George VI’s coronation procession on 12 May, 1937. Other landmark broadcasts included the first FA Cup final on the 30 April, 1938 and the Wimbledon tennis championship in June, 1937.

1940 – 1949

During World War Two the television service was closed down and it was left to radio to inform and entertain. However the BBC didn’t get things right and listeners complained about the standard of the new ‘Home Service’.

The Home Service had replaced the national and regional radio programmes and the new service had too many public announcements and the tone of the broadcasts was deemed boring. The BBC then decided to lighten things by switching to what was to become known as light entertainment. A programme called ITMA, (It’s That Man Again) starring Tommy Handley, attracted over 16 million listeners every week. Other popular shows included Vera Lynn’s Sincerely Yours, which was to land her the title of the Forces Sweetheart.

In 1943 the BBC set up a war-reporting department. Special training was given to the reporters in survival techniques used by the military. A newly designed portable lightweight recording machine had been designed by BBC engineers for use in the field.

After the Second World War, radio advanced in leaps and bounds, transmitting all manner of new programmes from the inaugural Reith Lecture in 1948 to popular entertainment shows like Worker’s Playtime and Desert Island Discs.

1950 – 1959

A single event in 1953 was to change television forever. The broadcasting of the Queen’s coronation in 1953. It was estimated that over 22 million people watched the event. It was after this that the nation became more keen to have television, and sales of TV sets soared.

Television had become just as important as radio. As a result of the increase in television set ownership the revenue from the licence fee also increased, which enabled the BBC to put on more elaborate programmes such as David Attenborough’s Zoo Quest in 1954, and Jack Warner in Dixon of Dock Green, a police series. They had further success with dramas such as The Quatermass Experiment and the adaptation of George Orwell’s novel, Nineteen Eighty Four.

It was only when commercial television began with the launch of ITV in September 1955 that the BBC’s output was revealed as dated and old-fashioned, resulting in a dramatic loss of viewing audiences. Things became so bad that by 1957 the BBC’s share of audiences fell to 28%. This led to a further revamp of programme output by the BBC, and by the end of the decade this decline was reversed with the introduction of new programmes. Shows such as PanoramaThe Sky At NightJukebox Jury and Blue Peter all became instant hits.

During the 1950s, technological innovations came about which went a long way to improve the reception and sound quality of broadcasts as well as electronic recording devices which meant programmes became pre-recorded. This resulted in a drop of ‘live’ broadcasting thus reducing costs.

1960 – 1969

In June, 1960 the new BBC Television Centre in West London was officially opened. It was another purpose-built building to cater for both television and radio, and it became the main headquarters and operations centre of the BBC.

A further review of output in 1960 resulted in plans for a second channel. BBC Two was launched in 1964 as a result of this review. Further advances in technology took place in 1967, one of which was the advent of colour television. BBC Two was the first channel to broadcast in colour followed in 1969 by BBC One.

In 1963, the first series of Doctor Who was broadcast.

Radio also expanded with the launch of Radio 1 in 1967 to replace the now-banned pirate radio stations such as Radio Caroline. The BBC’s main radio station, known initially as the Light Programme, was renamed Radio 2 that year. November, 1967 saw the first local radio stations, and within a few short years more than 20 local stations appeared across the UK. Further advances in technology also meant listeners could tune in to the enhanced FM1Stereo mode which gave a much better, clearer reception and improved sound quality.

1970 – 1979

The 1970s were to become known as the ‘Golden Age’ of television. The BBC’s income grew rapidly due to the expansion of colour television for, as more and more people bought television sets, so the licence fee revenue went up. This resulted in some major new documentary series being produced, and new series such as The Ascent of Man and The Family were broadcast. The Family was a fly-on-the-wall documentary series in 1974 which could claim to be the first reality television show ever. Epic and long-running television dramas such as I, ClaudiusLast of the Summer Wine and Pennies From Heaven were all big hits. There were new comedy programmes such as Fawlty TowersAre you Being Served? (1973) and The Good Life (1975), which were all instant hits which drew large viewing audiences.

BBC Radio was suddenly facing major challenges from local and independent radio stations and had to come up with new programmes to combat the challenge. As a result programmes such as I’m Sorry, I Haven’t a Clue and The Hitchhiker’s Guide to The Galaxy came about and again redressed the balance by keeping and increasing its share of listeners.

It was during the late 1970s that the BBC faced further challenges from the Government about output and quality of programmes. A committee report stated that the BBC had ‘lost its nerve’ and was in an ‘organisational fog’. As a result of this 1977 report, the way was laid open for the formation of Channel 4.

1980 – 1989

The 1980s became the decade of pressure for the BBC both from added competition and from the government. Channel 4 was launched in 1982, satellite television also started to emerge, and more local and national commercial radio stations started up – all resulting in ever more competition for listeners and viewers.

It was during the 1980s that some of the biggest political arguments occurred, and one which turned out to be quite spectacular was about a programme called Real Lives. The BBC were about to broadcast an edition about extremists in Northern Ireland when the then Home Secretary, Leon Brittan, asked the governors of the BBC to stop the edition from being broadcast. The Board of Governors viewed the programme prior to the planned air date – an unusual course of action that had previously been unheard of. They decided that changes needed to be made to the programme before it could be aired, but this demand resulted in BBC staff going on strike as they felt the BBC’s political independence and impartiality had been damaged and brought into question.

News reporting changed dramatically in the 1980s as it became the decade of wars and coverage of dangerous events such as Tiananmen Square, Northern Ireland and then the Falklands war. The news was being brought to the screen by correspondents who were either on scene or embedded with the armed services.

Major live events were broadcast, such as the wedding of Prince Charles and Princess Diana in 1981, and new soap operas emerged such as Eastenders and Neighbours. Factual and investigative programmes such as NewsnightCrimewatch and Watchdog also became hits and are still running today2.

In 1985, the House of Lords began a six-month experiment televising proceedings, after which the cameras became a permanent fixture. Four years later, the House of Commons followed suit, and it was in 1990 that the Commons voted for the cameras to stay.

1990 – 1999

The 1990s was to turn out to be the decade of technological advances so great that television and radio changed dramatically forever. Digital technology and the Internet allowed more channels and allowed the viewer to interact directly. For radio, they gave CD-quality sound.

BBC Online, better known to the public as, was established in 1997 and has gone on to become one of the world’s best-known and most trusted websites.

Radio also expanded greatly. The first new network for over 23 years, Radio 5, was launched in August, 1990. Its main output was sport and educational programmes. Radio 4 also underwent change and altered its format to target a wider and mixed age range, including younger listeners.

In order to secure a new charter in 1996 the BBC had to start providing programmes that the commercial networks wouldn’t. This resulted in new shows such as One Foot in the GraveAbsolutely Fabulous and topical news comedy quiz Have I Got News For You. All became hits with large viewing audiences and the programmes ran for several series. Some are still going to the present day, such as Have I Got News For You.

Costume dramas were also made and were again very popular, with dramas such as Pride and Prejudice and Middlemarch providing instant hits.

Science and natural history programmes such as The Human Body and Walking with Dinosaurs were broadcast towards the end of the decade, and were groundbreaking programmes in the way they were filmed.

2000 – 2008

The start of the new millennium was to see the biggest changes ever to the way the BBC provided its services. The digital revolution, across both television and radio, meant more choice, a wider variety of channels and programmes, and channels aimed at specific groups – for example ethnic, religious and special-interest groups. Children’s TV, education and documentaries also had their own specific channels.

The BBC introduced its own new digital service called Freeview, which allowed viewers to receive digital TV and an accompanying wider choice of channels via a normal TV aerial; it has proved a successful format alongside the major satellite rivals. As well as more choice, it has also allowed viewers increased interactivity via the ‘red button’ and digital teletext.

In 2001, the BBC expanded the website with the addition of Douglas Adams’ In 2002 the arrival of more digital services meant the launch of new digital Radio channels via the Freeview service and stations such as 1 Xtra5Live and BBC7 were launched.

In 2007 a new ten-year charter was negotiated with the Government, the Board of Governors were replaced and the BBC Trust took over as the governing body of the BBC.

Further expansion of the BBC’s online services took place, and it is now possible to watch live news coverage via the news website, and even BBC television programmes after they’ve been broadcast, via the downloadable BBC iPlayer. The online services were also expanded to include the facility to access the site via mobile phones. The BBC expanded the interactivity of its site allowing viewers and listeners to input ideas and comments, allowing more choice and more say in how and what the BBC do.

As technology grows and improves so changes will continue. The BBC, as with any media organisation, will have to continue to adapt and adopt to the new technology as well as the need to continue to provide programmes and services as per the charter.


MSc Computer Skills Course

Dear MSc Communication Student.

Please note the final term evaluation include

  1. English Typing speed (25 words per minute). You will be given 10 minutes to type 250 words. And after this first test you will be given second test
  2. Urdu typing speed (15 words per minute). You will be given 10 minutes to type 150 words.
  3. MCQs based paper will be given and questions will be included such as some very basic questions about words, Google searching techniques, some basic questions about data banks, conference, abstract etc. will be asked.

And one more thing, be relax type and practice, I assure you that practice will make you perfect.

Chapter ReviewList

Final Term Paper:

Every student is required to write a review and make PowerPoint slides of chapter assigned to him/her. The deadline to submit Review and chapter’s power point file as a final project is February 13, 2017. The viva voice of the will also be conducted on the day of submission.  The books mentioned here could be taken from Library, in case of any difficulty please contact me.

Book Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media (Severin & Tankard)
Roll # Name Chapter #
1 Asma hassan Chapter # 1
2 Sobia mustafa Chapter # 2
4 Rukhshanda zafar Chapter # 3
5 Atika sheikh Chapter # 4
8 Nosheen amjad Chapter # 5
9 Muhammad affan Chapter # 6
10 Syeda sama Zaidi Chapter # 7
13 Muzammil gulzar Chapter # 8
14 Abrar ahsan Chapter # 9
15 Muhammad ali dar Chapter # 10
17 Mariam ishfaq Chapter # 11
18 Maheen Imran Chapter # 12
19 Nida Mariam Chapter # 13
20 Hira naeem Chapter # 14
21 Shehryar khan Chapter # 15
22 Iqra ismail Chapter # 16
23 Muhammad faisal saeed Chapter # 17
24 Syeda rameen Kamran Chapter #18
Book Mass Communication Theory : Foundation, Ferment, and Future (Baran & Davis)
25 Nimra shoukat Chapter # 1
26 Iqra zahid Chapter # 2
27 Muhammad junaid Chapter # 3
28 Maria azam Chapter # 4
30 Zeeshan shahid Rabbani Chapter # 5
31 Ali fawwad Chapter # 6
32 Muhammad furqan azam Chapter # 7
33 Fatima bashir Chapter # 8
34 Syeda urooj ali Chapter # 9
35 Sheraz ahmad Qureshi Chapter # 10
36 Muhammad ahsan amjad Chapter # 11
38 Sana shahbaz Chapter # 12
Book Milestone in Mass Communication Research: Media Effects (3rd Edition) (Lowery & Defleur)
39 Nimra saeed Chapter # 1
40 Hira Akhtar rana Chapter # 2
42 Aiman Zahra Chapter # 3
43 Maimona naseem Chapter # 4
44 Qurat-ul-ain Chapter # 5
45 Muneeb tariq Chapter # 6
47 Ziad tariq Chapter # 7
49 Usama jamil Chapter # 8
50 Fatima maqsood Chapter # 9
51 Syeda sana rasool Chapter # 10
52 Rikza rasool Chapter # 11
53 Farwa maqsood Chapter # 12
54 Mahnoor ikram Chapter # 13
55 Nabeela asghar Chapter # 14
56 m. ramas farooz Chapter # 15
Book Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Mass Media Content
57 Hina javaid Chapter # 1
58 Muhammad Hussain Chapter # 2
59 Syed m. usman aqeel Chapter # 3
61 Muhammad ismail Chapter # 4
62 Amsal zulfiqar Chapter # 5
63 Ali javaid chattha Chapter # 6
64 Shehryar Naveed Chapter # 7
65 Ali moazam Chapter # 8
66 Saad butt Chapter # 9
67 Shahood ahmed Chapter # 10
68 Hafiz khawar ali Chapter # 11
Book Jews, Muslim and Mass Media: Mediating other (Parfitt & Egorova)
69 Muhammad azeem Chapter # 1
70 Hassan ali Chapter # 2
71 m. omer nazir khan Chapter # 3
73 Adeel butt Chapter # 4
74 Tayyab Muhammad niazi Chapter # 5